Menu Close

Surrogate Measures of Safety: Library

The purpose of the SMoS library is to provide easy access to must-read literature on the subject of surrogate measures, with particular focus on the older publications that might exist only in paper form but are still highly relevant. We recommend also browsing the materials of the previous conferences as relevant contributions are frequently found there, too.

Tarko A. P. (2019) Measuring Road Safety Using Surrogate Events. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-12-810504-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2016-0-00255-3

Tarko, A. P. (2018) ‘Surrogate Measures of Safety’ in D. Lord, S. Washington (Eds.) ‘Transport and Sustainability, Volume 11 – Safe Mobility: Challenges, Methodology and Solutions’ (pp. 383–405). Emerald Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1-78635-224-8. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2044-994120180000011019.

Johnsson, C., A. Laureshyn, T. De Ceunynck (2018) ‘In search of surrogate safety indicators for vulnerable road users, a review of surrogate safety indicators’. Transport Reviews 38 (6), pp. 765-785. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2018.1442888.

Chang, A., N. Saunier, A. Laureshyn (2017) ‘Proactive methods for road safety analysis’. SAE International. White paper.

Laureshyn, A., C. Johnsson, T. D. Ceunynck, Å. Svensson, M. de Goede, N. Saunier, P. Włodarek, A. R. A. van der Horst, S. Daniels (2016) ‘Review of current study methods for VRU safety. Appendix 6 – Scoping review: surrogate measures of safety in site-based road traffic observations’. InDeV, Horizon 2020 project. Deliverable 2.1 – part 4.

Zheng, L., K. Ismail, X. Meng (2014) ‘Traffic conflict techniques for road safety analysis: open questions and some insights’. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 41 (7), pp. 633-641. http://doi.org/10.1139/cjce-2013-0558.

Tarko, A., G. Davis, N. Saunier, T. Sayed, S. Washington (2009) ‘Surrogate measures of safety’. TRB Subcommittee on Surrogate Measures of Safety ANB20(3). White paper.

Chin, H. C., S. T. Quek (1997) ‘Measurement of traffic conflicts’. Safety Science 26 (3), pp. 169-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-7535(97)00041-6

Hydén, C. (1996) ‘Traffic conflicts technique: state-of-the-art’ in H. H. Topp (Ed.) ‘Traffic safety work with video-processing’. Transportation Department, University Kaiserlauten.

Hauer, E. (198x) ‘Traffic conflict technique – fundamental issues’.

Hakkert, A. S. (198x) ‘Guidelines for the conduct of traffic conflict studies’. International Committee for Traffic Conflict techniques (ICTCT).

First workshops on traffic conflicts

Amundsen, F. H., C. Hyden (Eds.) (1977) Proceedings from the first workshop on traffic conflicts. 26-27 September 1977, Oslo, Norway.

Older, S. J., J. Shippey (Eds.) (1980) Proceedings of the second international traffic conflicts technique workshop, Paris, France, 10-12 May 1979. Transport and Road Research laboratory.

Kraay, J. H. (Ed.) (1982) Proceedings of the third international orkshop on traffic conflicts techniques. April 1982, Leidschendam, The Netherlands. SWOV, R-82-27.

Asmussen, E. (Ed.) (1984) Proceedings of the NATO advanced research workshop on  international calibration study of traffic conflict techniques. 25-27 May 1983, Copenhagen, Denmark. NATO ASI Series F: Computer and System Science vol. 5.

Malmö calibration study

Grayson, G. B. (1984) The Malmö study: a calibration of traffic conflict techniques. SWOV. R-84-12.

van der Horst, A. R. A. (1984) The ICTCT calibration study at Malmö: a quantitative analysis of video recordings. Institute for Perception TNO. IZF 1984-37.

Trautenfels study

Kraay, J. H., R. van der Horst (1985) The Trautenfels study: a diagnosis of road safety using the Dutch conflict observation technique DOCTOR. SWOV. R-85-53.

Zaidel, D., I. Hocherman, S. Hakkert (198x) ‘Safety analysis of the Trautenfels junction’. Transportation Research Institute, Technion.

XXXX (1985x) ‘Conflict studies at two junctions in Austria—the summary report of the Finnish and the Swedish teams’. VTT and Tekniska Högskulan i Lund. Research report 515.

Austrian TCT

Risser, R., W. D. Zuzan, W. Tamme, J. Steinbauer, A. Kaba (1991) ‘Handbuch zur Erhebung von Verkehrskonflikten mit Anleitungen zur Beobachterschulung’ (in German) ‘Handbook for the collection of traffic conflicts with instructions for observers’ training’. Literas Universitätsverlag.

Belgian TCT

Mortelmans, J., A. Vits, L. Venstermans, M. van Essche, M. Boogaerts, E. Vergisson (1986) ‘Analyse van de verkeersveiligheid met behulp van de Bijna-Ongevallen methode’ (in Dutch) ‘Analysis of road safety by means of the near-accident method’. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Departement Bouwkunde.

Brittish TCT

Baguley, C. J. (1984) ‘The British traffic conflicts technique’. NATO advanced research workshop on international calibration study of traffic conflict techniques 1984, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Canadian TCT

Sayed, T., S. Zein (1999) ‘Traffic conflict standards for intersections’. Transportation Planning & Technology 22, pp. 309-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2012.04.015

Brown, G. R. (1994) ‘Traffic conflicts for road user safety studies’. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering.
Brown, G., A. Chau, B. DeCastilho, F. Navin (1984) ‘Traffic conflict procedure and validation’. University of British Columbia. Department of Civil Engineering, Transport Safety Research Group.

Cooper, P. J. (1973) ‘Predicting intersection accidents: the use of conflicts and other models based on traffic flow parameters to predict accident experience at non-signalised intersections’. Ministry of Transport, Ottawa, Canada.

Checz TCT

Kocárková, D. (2012) ‘Traffic Conflict Techniques in Czech Republic’. SIIV – 5th International Congress – Sustainability of Road Infrastructures, 29-31 October 2012 2012, Rome, Italy. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.952

DOCTOR – Dutch TCT

Kraay, J. H., A. R. A. van der Horst, S. Oppe (2013) ‘Manual conflict observation technique DOCTOR’. Foundation Road safety for all, The Netherlands.

van der Horst, A. R. A., R. J. Kraay (1986) ‘The Dutch conflict technique – DOCTOR’. Workshop on traffic conflicts and other intermediate measures, 8-10 September 1986 1986, Budapest, Hungary.

Finnish TCT

Kulmala, R. (1984) ‘The Finnish traffic conflict technique’. NATO advanced research workshop on  international calibration study of traffic conflict techniques 1984, Copenhagen, Denmark.

French TCT

Muhlrad, N., G. Dupre (1984) ‘The French conflict technique’. NATO advanced research workshop on  international calibration study of traffic conflict techniques 1984, Copenhagen, Denmark.

German TCT

Erke, H., H. Gstalter (1985) ‘Verkehrskonflikttechnik – Handbuch für die Durchführung und Auswertung von Erhebungen’ (in German) ‘Traffic conflict technique – manual’. Unfall- und Sicherheitsforschung Straßenverkeh. Heft 52.

Erke, H. (1984) ‘The traffic conflict technique of the Federal Republic of Germany’. NATO advanced research workshop on  international calibration study of traffic conflict techniques 1984, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Swedish TCT

Laureshyn, A., A. Varhelyi (2018) ‘The Swedish Traffic Conflict technique: observer’s manual’. Transport & Roads, Department of Technology & Society, Faculty of Engineering, LTH, Lund University.

Shbeeb, L. (2000) ‘Development of a traffic conflicts technique for different environments – a comparative study of pedestrian conflicts in Sweden and Jordan’. Doctoral thesis. University of Lund, Lund Institute of Technology, Department of Technology and Society, Traffic Engineering.

Svensson, Å. (1998) ‘A method for analysing the traffic process in a safety perspective’. Doctoral thesis. University of Lund, Lund Institute of Technology, Department of Traffic Planning and Engineering.

Svensson, Å. (1992) ‘Vidareutveckling och validering av den svenska konflikttekniken’ (in Swedish) ‘Further development and validation of the Swedish traffic conflict technique’. Lund University, Institute of Technology, Dept. of Traffic Planning & Engineering.

Hydén, C. (1987) ‘The development of a method for traffic safety evaluation: the Swedish traffic conflict technique’. Doctoral thesis. Lund University, Department of Traffic Planning and Engineering. Bulletin 70.

Gårder, P. (1982) ‘Konfliktstudier i landsvägskorsningar’ (in Swedish) ‘Conflict stidies in rural intersections’. Institutionen för Trafikteknik, LTH, Lund. Bulletin 42.

Linderholm, L. (1981) ‘Vidareutveckling av konflikttekniken för riskbestämning i trafiken’ (in Swedish) ‘Further development of conflict technique for in traffic risk assessment’. Lund University, Dept. of Traffic Planning and Engineering, Lund, Sweden. Rapport 7025.

Hyden, C., P. Gårder (1977) ‘Konfliktstudier i landsvägskorsningar: redovisning av två pilotstudier’ (in Swedish) ‘Conflict studies at rural intersections: two pilot studies’. Institutionen for trafikteknik, LTH. LUTVDG/(TVTT-7008)/1-73/(1977).

Hydén, C. (1977) ‘A traffic conflict technique for determining risk’. University of Lund, Lund Institute of Technology, Department of Traffic Planning and Engineering. LUTVDG/(TVTT-3005)/1-95/(1977) & Bulletin 15 B.

Hydén, C. (1975) ‘Relations between conflicts and traffic accidents’. University of Lund, Lund Institute of Technology, Department of Traffic Planning and Engineering. Project progress report.

US TCT

Parker, M. R., C. V. Zegeer (1989) ‘Traffic Conflict Techniques for Safety and Operation’. US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. FHWA-IP-88-027.

Migletz, D. J., W. D. Glauz, K. M. Bauer (1985) ‘Relationships between traffic conflicts and accidents’. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. FHWA/RD-84/042.

Glauz, W. D., D. J. Migletz (1980) ‘Application of traffic conflict analysis at intersection’. Transportation Research Board. NCHRP Report 219.

Baker, W. T. (1972) ‘An evaluation of the traffic conflicts technique’. 51st Annual Meeting of the Highway Research Board 1972.

Perkins, S. R., J. I. Harris (1967) ‘Criteria for Traffic Conflict Characteristics: Signalized Intersections’. General Motors Corporation. Electro-Mechanical Department. Research Publication GMR-632.