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Surrogate Measures of Safety


Swedish Traffic Conflict Technique

Developed in 1980s at Lunds University, the Swedish TCT is still widely used for safety evaluation studies. It has gone through a number of major upgrades, being adjusted for the changes in traffic environment and new data collection technologies becoming available.

Aliaksei Laureshyn
Lund University

DOCTOR – Dutch Objective Conflict Technique for Operation and Research

The DOCTOR method was developed in the Netherlands by the Institute of Road Safety Re-search (SWOV) and TNO Human Factors.

Richard A. van der Horst
TNO / Road Safety for All